BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY :
The small, so called Brabant Bullenbeisser is regarded as the
immediate ancestor of the Boxer. In the past, the breeding of
these Bullenbeissers was in the hands of the huntsmen, whom they
assisted during the chase. Their task was to seize the game put
up by chasing hounds and hold it firmly until the huntsman arrived
and put an end to the prey. For this job the dog had to have as
wide jaws as possible with broadly spaced teeth, in order to bite
firmly and hold on tightly. A Bullenbeisser which had these characteristics
was best suited to this job and was used for breeding. Previously
only the ability to work and utilization were considered. Selective
breeding was carried out which produced a dog with a wide muzzle
and an upturned nose.
GENERAL APPEARANCE : The Boxer
is a medium sized, smooth coated, sturdy dog of compact square
build and strong bone. His muscles are taut, strongly developed
and moulded in appearance. His movement is lively, powerful with
noble bearing. The Boxer must be neither cumbersome or heavy,
nor light or lacking in body substance.
IMPORTANT PROPORTIONS :
a) Length of body / Height at withers : Square build, which means
that the horizontal line of the back is perpendicular to the vertical
line passing through the point of shoulder and to the other vertical
line passing through the point of buttock, thus defining a square
b) Depth of brisket / Height at withers : The chest reaches to
the elbows. Depth of chest is half the height at withers.
c) Length of nose bridge / Length of head : Length of nose bridge
in relation to skull should be 1 : 2 (measured from tip of nose
to inner corner of eye or, respectively, inner corner of eye to
BEHAVIOUR / TEMPERAMENT : The Boxer should be
fearless self-confident, calm and equable.
Temperament is of the utmost importance and requires careful attention.
Devotion and loyalty towards his master and his entire household,
his watchfulness and self-assured courage as a defender are famous.
He is harmless with his family but distrustful of strangers. Happy
and friendly in play, yet fearless in a serious situation. Easy
to train on account of his willingness to obey, his pluck and
courage, natural keenness and scent capability. Undemanding and
clean, he is just as agreeable and appreciated in the family circle
as he is as a guard, companion and working dog. His character
is trustworthy, with no guile or cunning, even in old age.
|HEAD : This gives
the Boxer his characteristic look. Must be in good proportion
to the body and appear neither too light nor too heavy. Muzzle
should be as broad and powerful as possible. The harmony of
the head depends on the balance between muzzle and skull.
From whichever direction the head is viewed, from front above
or sideways, the muzzle must always be in the right proportion
to the skull i.e. it must never appear too small. It should
be clean, not showing any wrinkle. However natural folds are
formed in the cranial region when alerted. From root of nose,
folds are always indicated running in a downward direction
on both sides. The dark mask is confined to the muzzle and
must be in sharp contrast to the colour of the head so that
the face does not appear sombre.
CRANIAL REGION :
Skull : The cranial region should be as lean
and angular as possible. It is slightly arched, neither round
and short nor flat; neither should it be too broad. Occiput not
too pronounced. Furrow in forehead only slightly marked, must
not be too deep, especially between the eyes.
Stop : The forehead forms a distinct stop towards
bridge of nose. Bridge of nose must not be forced back into the
forehead as in the Bulldog, nor should it be downfaced.
FACIAL REGION :
Nose : Nose is broad and black and only slightly
turned up with wide nostrils. Tip of nose is placed slightly higher
than root of nose.
Muzzle : The muzzle is powerfully developed in
three dimensional volume, neither pointed or narrow, nor short
or shallow. Its appearance is influenced by :
a) Shape of jaw. b) Position of canine teeth. c) Shape of lips.
The canines must be placed as far apart as possible and must be
of good length, making the front of the muzzle broad, almost square
and forming a blunt angle with bridge of nose.
In front, the edge of the upper lip rests on the edge of the lower
lip. The part of the lower jaw with lower lip curved upwards,
called the chin, must not markedly protrude over upper lip, seen
from front. Nor should it be hidden by the lip but should be well
defined from front and side.
The canines and incisors of the lower jaw must not be visible
when mouth is closed, neither should the tongue show. Median groove
in the upper lip (philtrum) is clearly visible.
Lips : The lips complete the shape of the muzzle.
The upper lip is thick and padded and fills the space formed by
the undershot lower jaw; it is supported by the lower canines.
Jaws/Teeth : The lower jaw exceeds the upper
jaw and is slightly curved upwards. The Boxer is undershot.
The upper jaw is broad where it joins the cranial region, tapering
only slightly towards the front. The teeth are strong and healthy.
The incisors are as even as possible, set in a straight line.
Canines wide apart and of good size.
Cheeks : Cheeks are developed in proportion with
the strong jaws without markedly bulging. They merge with the
muzzle in a slight curve.
Eyes : The dark eyes are neither too small nor
protruding or deep set. Their expression conveys energy and intelligence
and must not be threatening or piercing. Eye rims must be dark.
Ears : The natural ears are of appropriate size.
They are set on wide apart on highest part of skull. In repose
they lie close to the cheeks and turn forward with a definite
crease especially when the dog is alert.
NECK : Topline runs in an elegant
arch from the clearly marked nape to the withers. It should be
of ample length, round, strong and muscular.
BODY : Square body resting on
sturdy straight legs.
Withers : Should be marked.
Back : Including loin should be short, firm,
straight, broad and muscular.
Croup : Slightly sloping, broad and only slightly
arched. Pelvis should be long and broad, especially in bitches.
Chest : Deep, reaching to elbows. Depth of chest
is half the height at withers. Well formed forechest. Ribs well
sprung but not barrel-shaped, extending well to the rear.
Underline : Running towards rear in elegant line.
Short taut flanks slightly tucked up.
TAIL : Set on high rather than
low, customarily docked and carried high.
FOREQUARTERS : Front legs seen from front
must stand parallel and have strong bone.
: Long and sloping, connected firmly to body. Should not be
Upper arm : Long, making
a right angle to shoulder blade.
|Elbows : Neither
too close to side of chest nor turned out.
: Vertical, long, clean muscles.
: Strong, well defined, but not exaggerated.
(Pastern) : Short, almost perpendicular to ground.
Front feet : Small, round, tight, well cushioned
and hard pads.
Very muscular, the muscles brick hard and visible under the
: Seen from rear straight.
Thigh : Long
and broad. Angles of hip and knee are open but as little as
Knee (Stifle) : When dog is
standing, should reach so far forward that it would touch
a vertical line from point of hip to ground.
thigh : Very muscular.
: Strong and well defined but not exaggerated. Angle approximately
Metatarsus (Rear Pastern)
: Short with slight inclination, 95-100 degrees to the ground.
Hind feet : Slightly longer than front feet,
tight; well cushioned and hard pads.
GAIT / MOVEMENT : Lively, full of strength and
Mex.Ch. Gates Mills Regal Desire,TT - photo reproduced with permission
(Dawn R Droescher)
SKY : Dry, elastic without any
HAIR : Short, hard, glossy and close fitting.
COLOUR : Fawn or brindle : Fawn comes in various
shades from light fawn to dark deer red but the most attractive
shades are in the middle range (red fawn). Black mask. The brindle
variety : fawn background of varying shades has dark or black
stripes running parallel to ribs. Stripes must contrast distinctly
colour. White markings should not be discarded. They can be quite
SIZE AND WEIGHT :
Height at the withers : Dogs : 57-63 cm.
Females : 53-59 cm.
Weight : Dogs : over 30 kg when height at withers
is ca 60 cm.
Bitches : about 25 kg when height at withers is ca 56 cm.
FAULTS : Any departure from
the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness
with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion
to its degree.
Behaviour / Temperament : Aggressive, vicious,
cunning, untrustworthy, lack of spirit, overly shy.
Head : Lack of nobility and typical expression,
sombre face, Pinscher or Bulldog type head.
Dribbling, showing of teeth or tongue. Muzzle too pointed or slight.
Bridge of nose falling away.
Leather or weather nose, pale nose leather. So called, "hawk
eye", lack of pigment in haw.
In uncropped ears : Flapping, half erect or erect
ears, rose ears.
Wry jaw, slanting teeth, incorrect position of teeth, poorly developed
teeth and unsound teeth due to illness.
Neck : Short, thick and throaty.
Body : Front too broad and low to the ground.
Sagging body, roach or sway back. Lean, long, narrow, sagging
loin, loosely coupled body.
Arched loin, croup falling away. Narrow pelvis, hollow flanks,
Tail : Low set on, kink tail.
Forehand : French front, loose shoulders, loose
elbows, weak pastern, hare foot, flat, splayed feet.
Hindquarters : Weak muscles. Too much or too
little angulation, down on hocks, barrel hocks, cow
hocks, narrow hocks, dewclaws, hare foot, flat, splayed feet.
Movement : Waddling, insufficient reach, pacing,
Colour of coat : Mask extending beyond muzzle.
Stripes (brindling) too close together or too sparse.
Sooty ground colour. Mingled colours. Unattractive white markings
such as a whole white head or white on one side of the head. Other
colours and white markings exceeding one third of the ground colour.
N.B. : Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles
fully descended into the scrotum.
Reprinted with permission
FCI (144) Gp2
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